The Roman Forum
Situated in the historic Athenian neighbourhoods of Plaka and Monastiraki, the Roman Forum was built under the emperor Augustus between 19 and 11 BC, as the city’s trade centre. Later, under Hadrian, the Forum was restructured and expanded, with its main yard being paved.
Major landmarks in the area include the Horologion, built by Andronicus of Cyrrhus (also known as Tower of the Winds), and the Forum’s well-preserved western gate.
After the city’s destruction in the Herulian invasion of the late third century AC, trading was conducted within the confines of the Forum, its walls affording protection. This location evolved into the administrative centre of Athens.
The Forum was subject to constant change, again in the Byzantine era, followed by the Frankish and Ottoman occupations. Christian churches, new buildings and workshops arose, followed later by the Fethiye Mosque. Its role as a trading centre lived on throughout these changes.